Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem in sports. There is high risk for back pain occurrence in athletes. The knowledge about LBP in overhead athletes is limited. The Movement System (MS) approach is based on association of symptoms and incorrect movements of the spine. The main goal is to identify the localization and direction of improper movements and to restore appropriate motor control of the movement pattern. Aim: To present functional evaluation and therapeutic approach based on the MS in the case of LBP in overhead athlete. Case study: The study presents a 26-year-old overhead athlete with chronic mechanical LBP, which is related to his sports activity. He reported exacerbation incidents, which had eliminated him from physical activity. Results and discussion: Physical examination of the patient had shown deficit of lumbar motor control in directions of extension and rotation of pelvis coupled with functional alterations in muscles. These movements were associated with pain symptoms. The patient had undergone a 4-month-lenght-therapy program, which was focused on spine motor control training and functional reeducation of muscles. A subsequent examination showed an improvement in motor control of the movement and considerable decrease of pain symptoms. Conclusions: (1) The MS approach allows to identify the incorrect movement and to relate it with pain symptoms. (2) Reeducation of motor control based on movement system evaluation allows decreasing pain symptoms.